The Brunswick & Albany was organized in 1869 to take over the operation of the defunct Brunswick & Florida Railroad, which did not survive the Civil War. Poors 1869-70 Manual reported that the road “at the present time is in the condition as after dismantlement in 1863.” In that year the Confederate government had seized the line so that its rails could be taken up for reuse on more militarily important roads.
Early in 1869 the Georgia General Assembly approved aid for the rebuilding of the line. By May of that year the tracks were open from Brunswick to the Atlantic & Gulf Railroad at Tebeauville (now Waycross). Much more work was accomplished in 1870-71 when nearly 200 state convicts leased to Grant, Alexander & Co. were forced to grade the route farther west. The Brunswick & Albany's trains reached Albany in October of 1871.
The old branch line between Schlatterville and Glenmore (a part of the original main line) had become unnecessary and was abandoned.
In 1872 the General Assembly nullified a bond issue for the railroad. It entered receivership that year and was sold under foreclosure the following year. In 1882 it was once again reorganized, emerging under the new name Brunswick & Western Railroad.